Below are scientific sources for the information in the infographic.

Superspreading Fuels the Pandemic

Miller, Danielle, et al. "Full genome viral sequences inform patterns of SARS-CoV-2 spread into and within Israel." medRxiv (2020).

Adam, Dillon, et al. "Clustering and superspreading potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in Hong Kong." (2020).

Endo, Akira, et al. "Estimating the overdispersion in COVID-19 transmission using outbreak sizes outside China [version 3; peer review: 2." (2020). 

Goyal, Ashish, et al. "Wrong person, place and time: viral load and contact network structure predict SARS-CoV-2 transmission and super-spreading events." medRxiv (2020).

Laxminarayan, Ramanan, et al. "Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states." Science (2020).

Lemieux, Jacob, et al. "Phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in the Boston area highlights the role of recurrent importation and superspreading events." medRxiv (2020).

Morgan P Kain, et al. "Chopping the tail: how preventing superspreading can help to maintain COVID-19 control." medRxiv (2020).

Dillon C. Adam and Benjamin J. Cowling, ‘Just Stop the Superspreading’ New York Times June 2, 2020.

Where Superspreading Events Happen


Swinkels, K. (2020). Covid-19 Superspreading Events Database. 
Swinkels, K. et al. 
Leclerc, QJ, Fuller NM, Knight LE et al. What settings have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters? [version 2; peer review: 2 approved] Wellcome Open Res 2020, 5:8.

Lakha, F, Rudge JW, Holt H (2020). Rapid synthesis of evidence on settings which have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 transmission clusters. This work was carried out in collaboration with the World Health Organization Western Pacific Regional Office (WPRO).

Aerosols Drive Superspreading


Lidia Morawska, Donald K Milton, It Is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa939.

Li, Yuguo, et al. "Evidence for probable aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a poorly ventilated restaurant." medRxiv (2020).

Sajadi MM, Habibzadeh P, Vintzileos A, Shokouhi S, Miralles-Wilhelm F, Amoroso A. Temperature, Humidity, and Latitude Analysis to Estimate Potential Spread and Seasonality of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(6):e2011834.
Furukawa NW, Brooks JT, Sobel J. Evidence supporting transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 while presymptomatic or asymptomatic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jul.

Joshua D. Rabinowitz and Caroline R. Bartman, ‘These Coronavirus Exposures Might Be the Most Dangerous.’ New York Times April 1 2020.

Daniela Hernandez, Sarah Toy and Betsy McKay, ‘How Exactly Do You Catch Covid-19? There Is a Growing Consensus.’ Wall Street Journal June 16 2020.


Stop Superspreading


Caitlin McCabe, ‘Key to Preventing Covid-19 Indoors: Ventilation.’ Wall Street Journal September 1 2020.

Lidia Morawska, "How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised?" Environment International, Volume 142, September 2020.



Aerosol Transmission Estimator: Calculates COVID-19 infection risk for a number of basic situations: college classrooms, choirs, taking a bus, being outdoors, participating in demonstrations.

COVID-19 Indoor Safety Calculator App: Calculates indoor transmission risk for various settings.